The rise and fall of Harlem: the conspiracy to retake harlem. fact or fiction ? part three

The social
political and economic issues surrounding gentrification may seem like a new conflict,
but in fact gentrification (means when the rich take property from the poor)
goes back to 1626, when the Dutch conquered (or purchased for 60 Dutch
guilders, the equivalent of $24 or in some estimates $1000 dollars U.S. money,
but if the natives would have declined to sell it I wonder if Mr. Minuit would
have just walked away.) the area called Manhattan (today) from the Native
American tribe called The MANHATTANS or/and another tribe called the LENAPE.
The name Harlem derives from the Haarlem, located in the Netherlands. The first
Europeans to conquer this area called Harlem or/and Manhattan were the Dutch.
It was peter Minuit who purchased the area that is now called Manhattan (today)
on behalf of the Dutch west India
. (More about them and the Dutch east India Company later)

(The origin of the word “gentrification” comes from the word “gentrify” which means “to renovate inner city housing to
middle class standards” gentrify
is a compound word broken down in the following manner: “gentry” + “fy”,  “gentry
means nobility of rank or/and
birth, also in character. “fy” is a suffix meaning to “make into” or/and “to
make, do’ / nobility or to be
noble is to be “illustrious, distinguished,
worthy of honor or respect and of superior
./ Now here is the root of the problem in the issue of
“gentrification”(or in plain English the taken of land and property, the denial
of freedom, justice and equality)  It is
the mindset that another people believe that they are inherently superior to
another, so that gives them the birth right to just usurp another people from
their land, village or residency without regard to their future, culture and
well being. )

According to the history,
Harlem was only a village, or a settlement, founded by Hendricks (Henry) de Forest, Isaac de Forest, his brother,
and their sister Rachel de Forest, French Dutch immigrants in 1637. (See the
book: Ellis, Edward
Robb (1966). The Epic of New York City) The
settlement was officially formalized in 1658, known as Nieuw Haarlem. By the
last appointed director on behalf of the Dutch west India Company, peter
Stuyvesant. (Of course Bedford–Stuyvesant
in Brooklyn is named after peter
Stuyvesant also)

The Indian trail to Harlem’s
lush bottomland meadows was rebuilt by black laborers of the Dutch West India
Company and eventually developed into the Boston Post Road. (More than likely
in the Bronx) In 1664, the English took control of the New Netherland colony
and anglicized the name of the town to Harlem. On September 16, 1776,
the Battle of Harlem Heights,(this
battle was between the Americans and the British)  sometimes referred to as the Battle of
or Battle of Harlem Plain, was fought in western Harlem around
the Hollow Way (now West 125th St.), with conflicts on Morningside Heights to
the south and Harlem Heights to the north.

Differences in conceptions of
property rights between the Europeans and the Lenape resulted in widespread
confusion among the Lenape and the eventual loss of their lands.
(Gentrification) After the Dutch arrival in the 1620s, the Lenape were
successful in restricting Dutch settlement until the 1660s to Pavonia in
present-day Jersey City along the Hudson. The Dutch finally established a
garrison at Bergen, which allowed settlement west of the Hudson within the
province of New Netherland.

“In the early 1680s, William
Penn and Quaker colonists created the English colony of Pennsylvania on the
Delaware River. In the decades immediately following, some 20,000 new colonists
arrived in the region, putting pressure on Lenape settlements and hunting
grounds. Although Penn endeavored to live peaceably with the Lenape and to
create a colony that would do the same, he also expected his authority and that
of the colonial government to take precedence. His new colony effectively
displaced the Lenape and forced others to adapt to new cultural demands. Penn
gained a reputation for uncommon benevolence and tolerance, but his efforts
resulted in more effective colonization of the ancestral Lenape homeland than
previous ones.” (See Historian James
O’Neil Spady)

In 1758 there was the treaty
of Easton, between the Lenape and the Anglo-American colonists, required the
Lenape to move westward, out
of present-day New York and New Jersey and into Pennsylvania, then Ohio and
beyond. Sporadically they continued to raid European-American settlers from far
outside the area. In 1778 there was another treaty called “the called treaty of
fort Pitt” (I guess we know what happened to that treaty)

The following is an excerpt
from the book west Virginia: A history for beginners.

American Concept of Land

a major factor in the treaty disputes was Native Americans’ concept of land.
Indians fought among themselves over hunting rights to the territory but the
Native American idea of “right” to the land was very different from
the legalistic and individual nature of European ownership. John Alexander
Williams describes this in his book, West Virginia: A History for Beginners:

The Indians had no
concept of “private property,” as applied to the land. Only among the
Delaware’s was it customary for families, during certain times of the year, to
be assigned specific hunting territories. Apparently this was an unusual
practice, not found among other Indians. Certainly, the idea of an individual
having exclusive use of a particular piece of land was completely strange to
Native Americans.

The Indians practiced communal land ownership.
That is, the entire community owned the land upon which it lived…..






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